Palynomorph assemblages dominated by dinoflagellate cysts are described from seventeen samples from the Rabot Member of the Santa Marta Formation at Ekelöf Point, eastern James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Although the assemblages are of relatively low diversity, the dinoflagellate cyst taxa recorded indicate a mid to late Campanian (Late Cretaceous) age. Changes in species diversity, dominance and gonyaulacacean ratio suggest a gradually reducing distance from shore during deposition, with a return to more offshore conditions towards the section top. A new species of dinoflagellate cyst, Isabelidinium papillum, is described.
Heterotrophic dinoflagellates and their herbivory were quantified at a coastal site in East Antarctica in the vicinity of the Australian Antarctic station of Davis (68° 35′ S, 77° 58′ E). The study period, 14 January to 11 February 1994, coincided with the growth and decline of a diatom-dominated phytoplankton bloom. Nine taxa of heterotrophic dinoflagellates, including 2 naked and 7 armoured forms, were identified and selected for the determination of standing stock and grazing rates. All 9 taxa selected for grazing rate measurements showed an increase in abundance and biomass during the phytoplankton bloom. Total abundance and biomass increased exponentially from 14 January to reach a maximum abundance, when the 9 taxa were combined, of 46400 cells l-1 on the 31 January, equivalent to a standing stock of 114.5 µg C l-1. Taxon-specific grazing rates were determined at in situ predator and prey concentrations by tracing 14C through a 3 compartment (water, phytoplankton, heterotrophic dinoflagellate) model. Mean taxon-specific clearance rates varied more than 10-fold from 0.028 µl cell-1 h-1 in Diplopeltopsis spp. to 0.318 µl cell-1 h-1 in a Protoperidinium sp. In contrast, mean taxon-specific rates of ingestion varied only 3-fold from 0.72 pg chl a cell-1 h-1 in Diplopeltopsis spp. to 2.38 pg chl a cell-1 h-1 in the same Protoperidinium sp. The total ingestion rate of the 9 taxa was 29.7 ng chl a l-1 h-1 on 31 January, of which 92% was consumed by the 3 most abundant taxa, Gyrodinium sp.1, Gyrodinium sp.2 and Diplopeltopsis spp. This activity represented 6.7% of the water column cleared, 4.8% of autotrophic biomass and 25% of daily primary production ingested per day. The estimated rates of specific ingestion and growth of heterotrophic dinoflagellates were lower in the coastal waters of East Antarctica than in laboratory studies carried out at higher temperatures. However, when the environmental parameters, predator size and prey type and concentration are taken into account, values measured in the present study are tenable, comparing well with other in situ measurements. Furthermore, the estimates of grazing impact on phytoplankton biomass and production illustrate that heterotrophic dinoflagellates play an important part in the biotic control of phytoplankton production and therefore of carbon flux through the food web of coastal waters of East Antarctica.
King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus which were rearing chicks were studied during three summers from November 1991 to March 1994 at South Georgia. Stomach samples (n=115) collected by flushing had a mean mass of 1308 g. Fish mass was allocated to each species based on the relationship between fish mass and otolith length. Three mesopelagic lanternfishes (Myctophidae), Krefftichthys anderssoni, Electrona carlsbergi and Protomyctophum choriodon, dominated the diet both by numbers and mass. They were small fish with mean mass of 3–7 g. Overall, K. anderssoni dominated the diet in terms of numbers and mass. Although Barracudina Notolepis coatsi occurred in <3% of the diet by numbers, it was large (106 g) and was second most important in terms of mass. Squid represented <3% of the diet by mass. Although the chick-rearing success was poor in the 1993–1994 summer, meal size was not reduced but foraging trips were longer. In the 1993–1994 summer, a larger proportion of the otoliths were not identifiable because they were more completely digested. Fewer otoliths were identified as being those of K. anderssoni, but we argue that about 90% of the unidentified otoliths were K. anderssoni. There was also more squid and N. coatsi in the diet during the poor summer. A consistent trend was that P. choriodon was rare or absent in early summer but more important later in the year, and at the end of 1992–1993, it was the dominant prey. We conclude that myctophid fish, especially K. anderssoni, are the main summer prey of King Penguins rearing chicks at South Georgia, as found in other recent studies in the Southern Ocean.
Four repeat hydrographic sections across the eastern Weddell gyre at 30°E reveal a warming (by ~0.1°C) and lightening (by ~0.02–0.03 kg m−3) of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) entering the gyre from the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean between the mid-1990s and late 2000s. Historical hydrographic and altimetric measurements in the region suggest that the most likely explanation for the change is increased entrainment of warmer mid-depth Circumpolar Deep Water by cascading shelf water plumes close to Cape Darnley, where the Indian-sourced AABW entering the Weddell gyre from the east is ventilated. This change in entrainment is associated with a concurrent southward shift of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current’s (ACC) southern boundary in the region. This mechanism of AABW warming may affect wherever the ACC flows close to Antarctica.
In 2008 the BIOPEARL II expedition on board of RRS James Clark Ross sailed to the eastern Amundsen Sea Embayment and Pine Island Bay, one of the least studied Antarctic continental shelf regions due to its remoteness and ice cover. A total of 37 Agassiz trawls were deployed at depth transects along the continental and trough slopes. A total of 5,469 specimens, belonging to 32 higher taxonomic groups and more than 270 species, were collected. Species richness per station varied from 1–55. The benthic assemblages were dominated by echinoderms and clearly different to those in the Ross, Scotia and Weddell seas. Here we present the macro- and megafaunal assemblage structure, its species richness and the presence of several undescribed species.
Fossil-bearing deposits in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica indicate that, despite the cold nature of the continent’s climate, a tundra ecosystem grew during periods of ice sheet retreat in the mid to late Neogene (17–2.5 Ma), 480 km from the South Pole. To date, palaeotemperature reconstruction has been based only on biological ranges, thereby calling for a geochemical approach to understanding continental climate and environment. There is contradictory evidence in the fossil record as to whether this flora was mixed angiosperm-conifer vegetation, or whether by this point conifers had disappeared from the continent. In order to address these questions, we have analysed, for the first time in sediments of this age, plant and bacterial biomarkers in terrestrial sediments from the Transantarctic Mountains to reconstruct past temperature and vegetation during a period of East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat. From tetraether lipids (MBT’/CBT palaeothermometer), we conclude that the mean continental summer temperature was ca. 5 °C, in agreement with previous reconstructions. This was warm enough to have allowed woody vegetation to survive and reproduce even during the austral winter. Biomarkers from vascular plants indicate a low diversity and spatially variable flora consisting of higher plants, moss and algal mats growing in microenvironments in a glacial outwash system. Abietane-type compounds were abundant in some samples, indicating that conifers, most likely Podocarpaceae, grew on the Antarctic continent well into the Neogene. This is supported by the palynological record, but not the macrofossil record for the continent, and has implications for the evolution of vegetation on Antarctica.
During the past two decades, the subantarctic diatom flora has been the subject of several detailed taxonomic revisions, resulting in the description of a large number of new species. During a survey of the freshwater diatom flora of Macquarie Island (southern Pacific Ocean), an unknown Navicula species was observed showing resemblance to Navicula gottlandica. Populations of similar diatoms (previously reported as N. gottlandica) from Tasmania were also investigated. We here present a detailed morphological analysis of these diatoms, and compare it with the type material of N. gottlandica.
West Antarctica has formed the tectonically active margin between East Antarctica and the Pacific Ocean for almost half a billion years, where it has recorded a dynamic history of magmatism, continental growth and fragmentation. Despite the scale and importance of West Antarctica, there has not been an integrated view of the geology and tectonic evolution of the region as a whole. In this Review, we identify three broad physiographic provinces and present their overlapping and interconnected tectonic, magmatic and sedimentary history. The Weddell Sea region, which lays furthest from the subducting margin, was most impacted by the Jurassic initiation of Gondwana break-up. Marie Byrd Land and the West Antarctic rift system developed as a broad Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental rift system, reworking a former convergent margin. Finally, the Antarctic Peninsula and Thurston Island preserve an almost complete magmatic arc system. We conclude by briefly summarizing the geologic history of the West Antarctic system as a whole, how it provides insight into continental margin evolution and what key topics must be addressed by future research.
Collembola are a key component of the soil biota globally, playing an important role in community and ecosystem dynamics. Equally significant are their associated microbiomes, that can contribute to key metabolic functions. In the present study, we investigated the bacterial community composition of four Antarctic springtail species to assess if and how the extreme Antarctic environment has shaped the collembolans’ microbiomes. Springtails were collected from two biogeographical regions, the maritime and the continental Antarctic. From each region, two endemic species, belonging to the genera Cryptopygus (Isotomidae, Entomobryomorpha) and Friesea (Neanuridae, Poduromorpha), were included. This experimental design allowed us to quantify the relative importance of ecological factors (different regions of occurrence) and/or phylogenetic divergence in the host (different Orders) in shaping the Collembola microbiome. The diversity and richness of springtail microbiomes was lower in the Antarctic taxa compared to published information from species from temperate regions. The microbiome composition was predominantly species-specific, with a limited core microbiome shared across the four species examined. While both geographic origin and host species influenced the associated microbiomes, the former was the prevalent driver, with closer similarity between springtails from the same bioregion than between those belonging to the same genus.
June 9, 2018 /Sports News – Local More BYU Track and Field Athletes Named as All-Americans Tags: All-American/Andrea Stapleton-Johnson/BYU Track and Field/Clayson Shumway/Clayton Young/Matt Owens/Rory Linkletter Brad James FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailEUGENE, Ore.-Friday, after their solid performances during the final day of men’s competition at the NCAA Track and Field championships, several BYU male athletes were granted All-American status.3000-meter steeplechase competitors Matt Owens and Clayson Shumway were named as first-team All-Americans as they placed sixth and seventh respectively in this event.Furthermore, Canadian national Rory Linkletter placed eighth in the men’s 5000-meter final and was therefore granted first-team All-American status as well.By virtue of placing 12th in the 5000-meter final, his teammate, Clayton Young, earned second-team All-American plaudits.The last Cougar to compete in the national championship meet is women’s high jumper Andrea Stapleton-Johnson as her event is slated for Saturday afternoon. Written by