A ribbon diagram of carbonic anhydrase, which isolates carbon dioxide in the lungs for exhalation. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons. (PhysOrg.com) — An enzyme in our blood that enables our lungs to exhale carbon dioxide could be the key to isolating carbon dioxide emissions from coal plants in order to store them safely underground. A company called Carbozyme, based in New Jersey, is developing a synthetic version of the blood enzyme that could capture carbon dioxide using one-third less energy than other methods. A simple, low-cost carbon filter removes 90% of carbon dioxide from smokestack gases More information: www.carbozyme.usvia: Popular Science© 2009 PhysOrg.com Citation: Blood Enzyme Could Help Realize Clean Coal (2009, December 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-12-blood-enzyme-coal.html Explore further The blood enzyme, called carbonic anhydrase, is constantly converting and reconverting carbon dioxide as part of our respiration process. At first, cells pump carbon dioxide into the blood, where carbonic anhydrase converts the gas into bicarbonate to make it easier to transport to the lungs. Then, in the lungs, the same enzyme converts the bicarbonate back into carbon dioxide to be exhaled. Carbonic anhydrase works very efficiently, capturing about two pounds of carbon dioxide per day.By mimicking the way this blood enzyme separates carbon dioxide from other gases in the body, researchers at Carbozyme have demonstrated how to capture and separate carbon dioxide from a wide variety of gas emissions, such as those from coal stacks. Isolating carbon dioxide is essential for sequestering the greenhouse gas underground, where it can be stored in layers of basalt rock. In addition to using less energy, the synthetic enzyme method also avoids using hazardous chemicals that some other gas separation methods use.Carbozyme plans to test the technology on coal burners at the University of North Dakota next year, and eventually license the method to coal plants. The company says that the design can also be tailored for different applications, such as in the food and beverage industry and renewable energy. Image credit: Carbozyme, Inc. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2011 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Bernardo Spagnolo of the University of Palermo in Italy and his Russian colleagues have developed a model that they believe explains why it is we humans hear some notes as harmonious, and others as dissonant. The team, as described in their paper in Physical Review Letters, say that such harmony can be explained by our auditory neural system. Sensory detection and discrimination: Study reveals neural basis of rapid brain adaptation Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Most people can hear the difference between harmony and general noise. It’s evident in a guitar chord: strike the notes C, E and G together and you get the familiar C Major Chord, so often heard in popular music. Mess up one note though, and everyone will wince. The same can be seen watching American (or other country) Idol; not when a contestant singing A cappella goes off key, but when a singer hits (or misses) a note that harmonizes with a note played on an accompanying instrument.There have been many theories suggested over the years as to how and why we hear some groupings of notes as pleasing and others as wrong, or off. Some have suggested that our brains simply receive a stream of notes and make of it what we will. Spagnolo et al, however, disagree, and they have a model that they say proves it.In their paper, the team says that we humans have different neurons in different parts of our ears that respond to different frequencies. Say perhaps one group responds to the C note on a guitar, and another to an E, etc., these are called sensory neurons. But that’s not enough to account for “liking” the two being heard at the same time. To explain this, the researchers suggest that we also have a third type of neuron called an interneuron. In their model, they suggest that the sensory neurons send signals to the interneuron, which then sends signals based on what its “heard” from them to the brain.What’s more, the team says that the sensory neurons conform to the “leaky integrate-and-fire” equation whereby the stimuli (in this case sound) drives up the voltage until it reaches a saturation point, whereby it then discharges it’s information (in this case to an interneuron), which then sends signals to the brain. If the sensory neurons were to all fire constantly, the interneurons would be inundated and unable to process all the information from multiple sensory neurons.The team then applied information theory that says that the less random a signal is the more information it has and came up with a number they call a regularity. And it’s this regularity that explains our “likening” different notes when heard together. “Good” notes played together result in a high regularity (because they have more information in them) while dissonant notes produce lower regularity.And that is why we smile when listening to two or three people who harmonize perfectly together, but frown when hearing the results of those less gifted. More information: Regularity of Spike Trains and Harmony Perception in a Model of the Auditory System, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 108103 (2011). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.108103AbstractSpike train regularity of the noisy neural auditory system model under the influence of two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies is investigated. For the increasing ratio m/n of the input signal frequencies (m, n are natural numbers) the linear growth of the regularity is found at the fixed difference (m-n). It is shown that the spike train regularity in the model is high for harmonious chords of input tones and low for dissonant ones.via Focus Citation: Research team develops mathematical model to explain harmony in music (2011, September 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-team-mathematical-harmony-music.html
(PhysOrg.com) — Researchers have discovered that when it comes to the survival of an octopus living in frigid waters, the reasoning is not a difference in the gene DNA but rather a difference in the RNA editing. Octopus vulgaris. Image: Wikipedia. Citation: RNA editing responsible for colder water survival in octopus (2012, January 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-rna-responsible-colder-survival-octopus.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com Explore further More information: RNA Editing Underlies Temperature Adaptation in K+ Channels from Polar Octopuses, Science, Published Online January 5 2012. DOI: 10.1126/science.1212795ABSTRACTTo operate in the extreme cold, ion channels from psychrophiles must have evolved structural changes to compensate for their thermal environment. A reasonable assumption would be that the underlying adaptations lie within the encoding genes. Here, we show that delayed rectifier K+ channel genes from an Antarctic and a tropical octopus encode channels that differ at only four positions and display very similar behavior when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, the transcribed mRNAs are extensively edited, creating functional diversity. One editing site, which recodes an isoleucine to a valine in the channel’s pore, greatly accelerates gating kinetics by destabilizing the open state. This site is extensively edited in both Antarctic and Arctic species, but mostly unedited in tropical species. Thus, A-to-I RNA editing can respond to the physical environment. Journal information: Science Scientists tap into Antarctic octopus venom The new study, led by molecular neurophysiologist Joshua Rosenthal and his graduate student, Sandra Garrett, from the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus in San Juan was published in Science.When it comes to cold temperatures, certain proteins that are responsible for nerve signals can be hampered. As a nerve cell fires, protein channels open or close to allow potassium ions in or out. Cold temperatures can delay the channels’ closing and stop the neurons ability to fire.Rosenthal and Garrett believed that in order for an octopus to survive in the frigid cold waters of the Arctic and Antarctic seas, they would have had to have changes in the DNA sequence.To test this theory, the researchers compared octopus species from the cold waters of the Antarctic as well as warm water octopus from the Puerto Rican reef. When they examined the potassium channel genes, they discovered almost identical DNA sequences.They then took the genes and inserted them into frog eggs cells in order to measure the electrical activity of each channel. Again they discovered that both species functioned in the same manner. But if the cold water octopus fired at the same rate as the warm water species, the channel would close 60 times slower so how could the octopus survive?They realized that RNA editing must be in play. In RNA editing, the cells synthesize an RNA version of the particular DNA with an amended nucleotide sequence which will alter the amino acids and change the proteins function. When the researchers looked at this, they discovered that the Antarctic species edits its RNA in nine different locations to change sequence of amino acids in the potassium channel.On site, known as I321V, is important for the survival in cold weather as it changes the potassium channel’s closing speed by more than 50 percent. The colder the octopus’ habitat is, the more likely they are to find edits at this location.This study shows that RNA editing can play a significant role in organism adaptation. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Having launched its standalone device, the company anticipates further growth in the embedded market, where other devices will make use of its technology. Michael Buckwald, co-founder and CEO of Leap Motion, sees the micro sensor as important for the company. “With our new micro sensor, there’s tremendous opportunity to integrate into other form factors like keyboards, smartphones, tablets, head-mounted displays and more. This is the next step for our company, with tremendous potential for the future.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2013 Phys.org Citation: HP marks October availability of gesture-control PC (w/ Video) (2013, September 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-hp-october-availability-gesture-control-pc.html HP will integrate Leap Motion controllers with PCs (Update) (Phys.org) —HP is taking the leap as the first laptop maker to sell a machine with Leap Motion gesture control technology embedded into the computer. HP announced Thursday that the HP ENVY17 Leap Motion Special Edition laptop is coming next month. This special edition will carry the Leap Motion technology and the Leap Motion Airspace app platform. Target date in the US is October 16 at a price starting at $1,049.99. Leap Motion deals in technology that allows users to control their computers with hand gestures alone. The creators did not only think of users taking to gesture control for games but also users taking to gesture control for work in presentations and design. The user controls the computer with two hands and ten fingers moving through the air. Until now, using the technology on a laptop required getting a Leap Motion Controller, which is a small USB device that plugs into a computer’s USB port. This technology is embedded within the HP Envy 17 special edition laptop, and the user finds an ostensible Leap Motion device below the keyboard, in a place referred to as the “wrist rest,” for gesture control. Once the sensor is calibrated, it can be turned on and off using the spacebar plus function key. An integrated status LED lights up when Leap Motion is active. Leap Motion’s Airspace Store is included to make use of related apps. Airspace Home will be preloaded on the notebooks, and will come bundled with five apps: Boom Ball, Jungle Jumper, Dropchord, Disney Sugar Rush, and Jack Lumber, an HP-exclusive app. (Airspace Store and Airspace Home are both parts of Airspace —Airspace Store is where you buy and download apps;. Airspace Home is where you go to launch them.)In order to achieve an embedded Leap Motion, the company had to rethink size, for a new module. “Our hardware engineers designed a new micro sensor that’s only 3.5 millimeters in height (less than half the height of the controller),” according to Leap Motion.If this is phase one for HP in offering a gesture control laptop as a special edition device, the move is phase two for Leap Motion in playing out its roadmap. More information: www.marketwired.com/press-rele … his-fall-1832815.htmwww8.hp.com/us/en/hp-news/pres … 1488726#.UjwPbMYbBfc Explore further
More information: The genetic sex-determination system predicts adult sex ratios in tetrapods, Nature (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nature15380AbstractThe adult sex ratio (ASR) has critical effects on behaviour, ecology and population dynamics, but the causes of variation in ASRs are unclear. Here we assess whether the type of genetic sex determination influences the ASR using data from 344 species in 117 families of tetrapods. We show that taxa with female heterogamety have a significantly more male-biased ASR (proportion of males: 0.55 ± 0.01 (mean ± s.e.m.)) than taxa with male heterogamety (0.43 ± 0.01). The genetic sex-determination system explains 24% of interspecific variation in ASRs in amphibians and 36% in reptiles. We consider several genetic factors that could contribute to this pattern, including meiotic drive and sex-linked deleterious mutations, but further work is needed to quantify their effects. Regardless of the mechanism, the effects of the genetic sex-determination system on the adult sex ratio are likely to have profound effects on the demography and social behaviour of tetrapods. The green lizard (Lacerta viridis, Laurenti 1768) have ZW genetic sex determination systems, whereas many other reptiles exhibit XY sex determination. Credit: Andras Liker The ASR is defined as the proportion of adult males to females in a given species. Some animals produce on average more of one or the other and scientists have struggled to understand how that process works. To learn more, the team with this effort gathered data from 344 specimens in the tetrapod species (those with four limbs) which included 117 familes and performed a phylogenetic analysis on them, noting specifically their sex (gender) chromosomes—which are of course, those that determine an offspring’s gender. Mammals, including us humans, have X and Y chromosomes, whereas some other species have Z and W.In looking at the data they had obtained, the team found that when a female of a species has two different gender chromosomes, the result is often more males than females being produced. But, when males of a given species have two different gender chromosomes, the result is generally more females than males being produced. The researchers still do not know why these imbalances occur but advise that further studies be conducted to find out. They suggest it might be because whichever gender has different gender chromosomes has less of a chance of surviving to birth—or less of a chance of surviving to adulthood—for whatever reasons.Understanding the ASR, the team points out is important because it can have such a profound impact on behavior, population changes and overall ecology. In humans, for example, a skewed ASR in a group has sometimes led to rape, violence and increased rates of infidelity. In other species, ASR can be a determinant for mating rituals and partner numbers. The researchers suggest that future efforts might need to focus on other species, such as fish, to gain a better understanding of how the underlying process truly works. Promiscuous males die young, childless females live longer This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Citation: Adult sex ratio linked to gender chromosomes (2015, October 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-adult-sex-ratio-linked-gender.html Explore further © 2015 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from institutions in Hungary, the U.S. and the U.K. has found a link between the adult sex ratio (ASR) and gender chromosome differences. In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe how they used data from a large number of tetrapods to find patterns that revealed male or female biases which suggested a link between such biases and ASR.
Journal information: Physical Review Letters © 2016 Phys.org (Phys.org)—It may sound like a simple riddle, but a team of scientists is intrigued with the answer because it could lead to a better understanding of percolation, the process that occurs when a liquid trickles through small holes in a filter. Percolation models have applications in unexpected areas, such as understanding cancer metastasis and in distributed computing. Explore further (Top) Experiment photos and (bottom) simulation images of cube drilling. For this cube, each face has 36 possible places where it can be drilled. However, the researchers found that the cube will fall apart after about 13 holes are randomly drilled in each of the three directions (x, y, and z axis), or 39 holes total. Credit: Schrenk, et al. ©2016 American Physical Society More information: K. J. Schrenk, et al. “Critical Fragmentation Properties of Random Drilling: How Many Holes Need to Be Drilled to Collapse a Wooden Cube?” Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055701 Also at arXiv:1601.03534 [cond-mat.stat-mech] Citation: How many holes need to be drilled to collapse a wooden cube? (2016, February 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-02-holes-drilled-collapse-wooden-cube.html What does turbulence have in common with an epidemic? This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The scenario involves a wooden cube with 6-cm sides made of medium-density fiberboard. Each of the six faces is marked with a 6 x 6-cm square lattice for a total of 36 square cells per face. Then round holes (of diameter equal to the length of a square cell) are drilled through random cells all the way through the cube. Holes continue to be randomly drilled until the structure breaks apart into separate pieces. Through both experiments and simulations, the researchers found that the number of holes that needs to be drilled to collapse this particular cube is always around 13 holes in each of the three directions, or 39 holes total. Their formula shows that, although this critical number changes for different lattice sizes, the critical density of drills is very similar. (Also, the type of wood doesn’t matter, since whatever wood is not drilled is considered intact.) But for the scientists, what’s more important than a particular number is how the cube reaches its breaking point.The researchers, a seven-member collaboration representing institutions in Switzerland, the UK, Brazil, the US, China, Portugal, and Germany, have published a paper on the fragmentation properties due to random drilling in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.As the number of drilled holes approaches the critical number, the researchers found that the cube begins to exhibit critical fragmentation properties. Surprisingly, the properties observed here turn out to differ greatly from those observed by researchers 30 years ago using similar models, but before modern simulation technology.”We find that the statistical properties of drilling are different from the ones of classical percolation—we say in physics of critical phenomena that these two systems fall into different universality classes,” coauthor Nuno Araújo, at the University of Lisbon in Portugal, told Phys.org.Whereas the classical model suggests that random hole-drilling follows random percolation behavior, in the new study the researchers found that the behavior departs from random behavior as the cube approaches its critical breaking point. They found that the cube gradually transitions to this critical point, accompanied by a rich spectrum of critical phenomena. For percolation applications, this finding means that a liquid’s transport properties change in a predictable way as the filter it passes through approaches its breaking point. The results could have diverse applications, including helping researchers better understand how enzymes degrade the gel that surrounds and supports organs and tissues. The structural gel, also called the “extracellular matrix,” is often modeled as a cube and the enzyme activity is modeled as random cutting. Understanding enzyme gel degradation is vital for understanding many biochemical processes, including tumor metastasis, since the enzyme “drilling” allows tumor cells to move to other organs.Percolation models are also used to understand networks, in particular to detect communities within networks. The models apply to many different types of networks, from social networks to distributed computing networks, in which multiple computers communicate with one another to solve problems. In the future, the researchers plan to investigate how drilling might affect the material’s physical properties.”Percolation is all about connectivity,” Araújo said. “In this work we mainly focus on the evolution of the largest connected piece. Other properties that are still unexplored for drilling are the conductivity properties—for example, electric conductivity if the material is a conductor.”
A pair of researchers at Purdue University has found a way to use a diatomic Ni-Ni catalyst to synthesize cyclopentenes. In their paper published in the journal Science, You-Yun Zhou and Christopher Uyeda describe their method and outline why they believe cyclopentene products would be useful. Keywan Johnson and Daniel Weix with the University of Wisconsin have published a Perspective piece in the same journal issue describing the work done by the team in Indiana. Citation: A way to use a two-nickel catalyst to synthesize cyclopentenes (2019, February 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-two-nickel-catalyst-cyclopentenes.html Reaction development. (A) Complementary cycloaddition routes to five- and six-membered rings from 1,3-dienes. (B) Pericyclic [4 + 1]-cycloadditions suffer from large electronic barriers due to repulsion between the carbene lone pair and the Ψ1 orbital of the 1,3-diene. (C) Dinickel-catalyzed reductive [4 + 1]-cycloaddition of 1,1-dichloroalkenes and 1,3-dienes. NMP, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; rt, room temperature; c-Pent, cyclopentyl. Credit: (c) Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aau0364 Johnson and Weix note that the discovery of new molecules lies behind many of the new materials that scientists have created over the years. One of the ways that new molecules are discovered is by observing them in nature and then synthesizing them in a lab. They note also that transition metal catalysis has been widely used to synthesize many new molecules that are currently used in a wide variety of products. They further note that the majority of transition metal catalysis involves the use of just one metal atom, but there have been exceptions in which catalysts have a two-metal atom core. In this new effort, the researchers used a diatomic Ni-Ni catalyst to carry out stereo-controlled synthesis of cyclopentenes (rings made of five carbon atoms).The researchers note that in typical Diels–Alder reactions, a diene and an alkene are allowed to react, resulting in a cyclohexene (a ring made of six carbon atoms). They also note that five-member rings are made in nature in a variety of ways, which suggests they might prove useful if they could be easily synthesized. Prior efforts to do so, however, have not panned out. The problem has been dealing with [4 + 1] reactions—there are difficulties involved with generating them using stable molecules. Also, reactivity with them has proven to be a challenge.Zhou and Uyeda took a different approach, using a two-metal catalyst instead. They found that in their approach, the two metal cores shared the task of controlling how the reaction occurred and in forming the carbene. This made possible the use of dichloroalkenes, which were more stable than diazo compounds. Additionally, just one of the rhodium centers was responsible for the bond formation with the catalyst—the second modulated the reactivity of the first through the bond. The result was a five-sided cyclopentene. Journal information: Science More information: You-Yun Zhou et al. Catalytic reductive [4 + 1]-cycloadditions of vinylidenes and dienes, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aau0364 Explore further © 2019 Science X Network Researchers create stable gold(III) catalysts via oxidative addition of a carbon–carbon bond This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
As ‘today’ would fully sub-merge into ‘yesterday’ by ‘tomorrow’ similarly ‘reality’ loses its identity to ‘history’. Photography comes to the rescue playing with the algorithm of time and space.Photographs act like a ‘mirage’ by creating a fictional hopeful world which seems beautiful when seen in the confines of a framed photograph but at times reality suffocates under the labyrinth of colorful submerging stories printed on a canvas.The exhibition titled Merging/Submerging will be trying to depict this merging/sub merging effect and let viewers see their own life reflections through the works of Abul Kalam Azad, Anurag Sharma, Chandan Gomes, Dr Deepak John Mathew, Gireesh GV, Rafeeq Ellias, Vicky Roy, Vinit Gupta and Partha Seal. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exhibition is expecting to provide a new perspective on photography. The aim is to raise the bar from simple photographs to complex ideas making the exhibition one of thought and aesthetic value together. The audience is not expected to see the works on display as simple exhibits, but are expected to look behind the shots for stories and philosophies. Here’s a little low-down on the artistes – Abul Kalam Azad’s first exhibition was in Kalapeedom, Kochi and since then has displayed his works in India and abroad. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAnurag Sharma has participated in many exhibitions for instance Parallel Cities, organised by Pro Helvetia – Swiss Art Council at Max Muller Bhawan, Sarai Reader 09 Exhibition, United Artist Fair held in Delhi and more.Dr Deepak John Mathew is a renowned photographer and award winning professional, he heads the Photography Design Department at the National Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad. Gireesh GV has worked as photographer for various reputed publications in the national capital and is quite a well-known name in the shutter-happy society. Rafeeq Ellias has won over 30 national and international awards, including two from the Art Directors Club of New York; Photographer of the Year and Best Photograph of the Year at the Communications Arts Guild in Mumbai; Gold, Silver and Bronze at ADASIA.Hailing from West Bengal, Vicky Roy held his first solo exhibition, Street Dreams at the India Habitat Centre.At 23, Chandan Gomes became the youngest recipient of the prestigious India Habitat Centre Fellowship for Photography in 2011. Photographs from his awarded essay were a part of the Inaugural Delhi Photo Festival. Vinit Gupta was the winner of the Photo Essay Category Song of the Road Canon-Better Photography Photographer of the Year 2011 Award.This one is a definite treat for photography lovers. Head over!WHEN: 7 November to 5 December, 11am to 7 pmWHERE: Art Konsult, F 213-C, First Floor, Lado Sarai
India’s Aditya Patel, driving for Audi India, JK Tyre and Amante, completed yet another magnificent race along with Portuguese teammate Cesar Campanico, finishing second in the International GT Open Series in Barcelona on Sunday. Team Nova Driver arrived at Barcelona coming off a fairly successful season, taking four podiums and a victory. A noted change was the introduction of a second team car, driven by Fabian Hamprecht and Fernando Monje. Both cars registered good performances through testing on Thursday and free practice on Friday before qualifying 5th and 7th on Saturday. Campanico who qualified fifth on the grid in GT3 and eighth overall, had a tough start to the race, falling back a few places but managed to claw his way back up to fourth place before the pit-stop and driver change.
“This is the right time for the country. The expectations of the world from the country are growing. We feel that the country has now started working towards making everyone capable of fulfilling these expectations,” Bhagwat told a gathering here at the inauguration of 40th convention of social service organisation Giants International.This change in the country is happening “because there is a change in power,” he said during his 50-minute speech. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJI“The way people in power are working now, makes the change. But that is not enough. If you want to make the country more successful, then the entire society has to rise to the occasion. Only if that happens, the achievements of government can be fruitful,” he said.“The society should contribute for others and the nation. Good leaders or noble political set up in the governance are useless if the society is selfish,” he said, adding, this is not the first time that such political change has happened.“The political changes in the past were rendered useless.There was a fault from this side (society) and also the other side (government),” he said.“The ultimate change is possible only when people see examples and imitate them. People believe in what they see,” he said.